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 CNS
Methods of Cancer Diagnosis, Therapy, and Prognosis 
Brain Cancer 
Edited by: Hayat, M. A. 
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Description:

The only book that discusses cancer diagnosis, therapy, and prognosis together in one volume
Discusses the molecular processes that lead to the development and proliferation of cancer cells
Includes recent major advances in cancer diagnosis and therapy assessment
The text is supported throughout with illustrations
The information in the book identifies patients with high likelihood of clinical benefits from a specific treatment

This eighth volume in the series Methods of Cancer Diagnosis, Therapy, and Prognosis discusses in detail the classification of the CNS tumors as well as brain tumor imaging in Europe. Scientists and Clinicians have contributed state of the art chapters on their respective areas of expertise, providing the reader a whole field view of the CNS tumors and brain tumor imaging in Europe.

This fully illustrated volume
Explains the genetics of malignant brain tumors and gene amplification using quantitative-PCR 
Presents a large number of standard and new imaging modalities, including magnetic resonance imaging, functional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, amide proton transfer imaging, positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, magnetic resonance single voxel spectroscopy and intraoperative ultrasound imaging, for staging and diagnosing various primary and secondary brain cancers. 
Explains the usefulness of imaging methods for planning and monitoring (assessment) therapy for cancers. 
Discusses diagnosis and treatment of primary CNS lymphomas, CNS atypical teratoid/rhabdoid and CNS Rosai-Dorfman disease. 
Includes the subject of translational medicine.
Professor Hayat has summarized the problems associated with the complexities of research publications and has been successful in editing a must-read volume for oncologists, cancer researchers, medical teachers and students of cancer biology.

Table of contents:

1. The World Health Organization Classification of the Central Nervous System Tumors: an Update Using Imaging; Shiori Amemiya

Introduction
Astrocytic Tumors
Pilomyxoid astrocytoma
Neuronal and Mixed Neuronal-Glial Tumors
Papillary Glioneuronal Tumor
Extraventricular Neurocytoma
Rosette-Forming Glioneuronal Tumor of the Fourth Ventricle
Other Neuroepithelial Tumors
Angiocentric Glioma
Tumors of the Pineal Region
Papillary Tumor of the Pineal Region
Embryonal Tumors
Medulloblastoma with Extensive Nodularity
Anaplastic Medulloblastoma
References

2. Brain Tumor Imaging: European Association of Nuclear Medicine Procedure Guidelines; Thierry Vander Borght, Susanne Asenbaum, Peter Bartenstein, Christer Halldin, Ozlem Kapucu, Koen Van Laere, Andrea Varrone, and Klaus Tatsch

Introduction
Background Information and Definitions
Common Indications
Indications
Detection of Viable Tumor Tissue
Tumor Delineation
Selecting the Best Biopsy Site
Noninvasive Tumor Grading
Therapy Planning
Tumor Response
Contraindications (relative)
Procedure
Patient Preparation
Prearrival
Preinjection
Information Pertinent to Performance of the Procedure
Precautions and Conscious Sedation Radiopharmaceutical
Radiopharmaceutical
Recommended Dosage
Radiation Dosimetry
Radiation Dosimetry of Brain Transmission Scans
Data Acquisition
Time Delay from Injection to Beginning of Data Acquisition
Set-up for Data Acquisition
Image Processing
PET Reconstruction
SPECT Reconstruction
Reformatting of PET and SPECT Images
Comparative Evaluation
Interpretation Criteria
Visual Interpretation
Quantification
Reporting
General
Body of the Report
Interpretation and Conclusion
Issues Requiring Further Clarification
References

3. Assessment of Heterogeneity in Malignant Brain Tumors; Timothy E. Van Meter, Gary Tye, Catherine Dumur, and William C. Broaddus

Introduction
The problem of Heterogeneity and Its Clinical Significance
Previous Studies Assessing Molecular Heterogeneity of Tumors
Use of Stereotactic Neuroimaging Systems for Tumor Sampling
Methodology
Description of Method
MRI-Guided Stereotactic Biopsy
Integrated Histopathological Scoring
Use of Genomics Technologies for Regional Molecular Profiling
Results
Histopathological Considerations
Assessing Quality of Biopsy Extracts
Genomic Assessment of Regional Tumor Phenotype
Validation Studies
Discussion
Utility of Stereotactic Biopsy for Tumor Characterization
Future Technical Applications
Clinical Impact of Improved Tumor Characterization
References

4. Diagnosing and Grading of Brain Tumors: Immunohistochemistry;Hidehiro Takei and Suzanne Z. Powell

Introduction
Immunohistochemical Markers for Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis of Brain Tumors.
Immunohistochemical Markers Routinely Used In Diagnostic Neuro-Oncology
Practice
New Immunohistochemical Markers Applicable to Brain Tumor Diagnosis
Useful Immunohistochemical Markers for Differential Diagnosis of Brain Tumors
Immunohistochemistry as a Useful Adjunct in Grading of Brain Tumors: Ki-67 and Phospho-Histon H3
Immunohistochemical and Analytical Methods
References

5. Malignant Brain Tumors: Roles of Aquaporins; Jerome Badaut and Jean-Francois Brunet

Introduction
Aquaporin Expression in Normal Brain and its Function
Aquaporin Distribution and its Potential Role
Aquaporin Astrocyte Endfeet Marker in Brain Water Homeostasis
Involvement of Aquaporin 9 Expression in Brain Energy Metabolism
Aquaporin Distribution in Tumors: Role in Prognosis and Treatment
Aquaporin in tumors: Water Homeostasis or Cell Migration?
Aquaporin 4 in Tumors: Biomarker for Tumor Classification
AQP9 in Brain Tumors: New Findings
References

6. Brain Metastases: Gene Amplification Using Quantitative Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction Analysis; Carmen Franco-Hernandez, Miguel Torres-Martin, Victor Martinez-Glez, Carolina Pena-Granero, Javier S. Castresana, Cacilda Casartelli and Juan A. Rey

Introduction
Objectives
Equipment and Procedure
DNA Extraction
Quantitative-PCR: Amplification Status
Procedure
Results
Further Considerations
References

7. Cyclic Amp Phosphodiesterase-4 in Brain Tumor Biology: Immunochemical Analysis; B. Mark Woerner and Joshua B. Rubin

Introduction
Materials and Methods
Western Blotting
Materials
Methods
Immunohistochemistry
Materials
Methods
Immunocytochemistry
Materials
Methods
Results and Discussion
References

8. Radiosurgical Treatment of Progressive Malignant Brain Tumors; Cole A. Giller

Introduction
Methodology of Treatment Philosophy
Methodology of Indications
Methodology of Choice of Fractionation Schedule
Methodology of Dosimetry
Construction of Hypofractionated Plans
Case Example
Cohort Study
References

9. Anti-Vascular Therapy for Brain Tumors; Florence M. Hofman and Thomas C. Chen

Introduction
Specific Drug Targets
Angiogenic Growth Factors
Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitors
Endothelial Cell Adhesion and Migration
Bone Marrow-derived Endothelial Progenitor Cells
Conclusion
References

10. Glial Brain Tumors: Antiangiogenic Therapy; William PJ Leenders and Pieter Wesseling

Clinical Features of Glioma
Histopathology and Genetics of Gliomas
Current Treatment Modalities
Antiangiogenesis as Antitumor Therapy
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A and Angiogenesis
Preclinical Antiangiogenesis Therapy for Diagnosis
Blood Vessel Normalization
Clinical Experience with Antiangiogenesis Therapy
Future Perspectives
References

11. Brain Tumors: Amide Proton Transfer Imaging; Jinyuan Zhou and Jaishri O. Blakeley

Introduction
Chemical Exchange-Dependant Saturation Transfer Imaging: Principles and Applications
Magnetization Transfer Contrast, Chemical Exchange-Dependant Saturation
Transfer, and Amide Proton Transfer
Amide Proton Transfer Imaging of Experimental Brain Tumor Models
Amide Proton Transfer Imaging of Human Brain Tumors
References

12. Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Rat Models of Invasive Brain Tumors; Sungheon Kim, Steve Pickup, and Harish Poptani

Introduction
Imaging Tissue Microstructure
Diffusion Tensor
Diffusion Tensor Metrics
Data Acquisition methods
Rat Brain Tumor Models
9L Gliosarcoma
C6 Glioma
F98 Glioma
Mayo 22 Hunman Brain Tumor Xenograft
Future Considerations
Tractography
Tumor Cell Density and Diffusion Anisotropy
References

13. Brain Tumors: Diffusion Imaging and Diffusion Tensor Imaging; Pia C. Sundgren, Yue Cao, and Thomas L. Chenevert

Introduction
Imaging Techniques
Diffusion Weighted Imaging
Diffusion Tensor Imaging
Diffusion Imaging in Tissue Characterization
Diffusion Imaging in Tumor Grading
Diffusion Imaging in Presurgical Planning
Diffusion Imaging in Treatment Follow-up
Diffusion Imaging in Differentiation of Recurrent Tumor
From Radiation Injury and Postsurgical Injury
Pitfalls
Future Applications
References

14. Brain Tumors: Planning and Monitoring Therapy with Positron Emission Tomography; D.J. Coope, K. Herholz, and P. Price

Introduction
Imaging Brain Tumors with Positron Emission Tomograoghy and FDG
Amino Acid PET in Brain Tumors
Positron Emission Tomography Imaging in Less Common Tumor Types
Delineation of Tumor Extent for Treatment Planning
Minimizing Damage to Uninvolved Brain Structures
Monitoring Brain Tumors-When is the best time to intervene?
Selection of Treatment Modalities
Assessing Response to Treatment and Prognosis
The Future of PET Imaging in Brain Tumors
References

15. Clinical Evaluation of Primary Brain Tumor: O-(2-[18F]Fluorethyl)-L-Tyrosine Positron Emission Tomography; Matthias Weckesser and Karl-Josef Langen

Introduction
Intensity and Dynamics of O-(2-[18F]Fluorethyl)-L-Tyrosine-Uptake
Correlation of O-(2-[18F]Fluorethyl)-L-Tyrosine-Uptake With Morphological Imaging
Recommendations for Image Acquisition and Interpretation
Clinical Application
References

16. Combined use of [F-18]Fluorodeoxyglucose and [C-11]Methionine in 45 PET-Guided Stereotactic Brain Biopsies; Benoit Pirotte

Introduction
Materials and Methods
Patient Selection
Stereotactic PET Data Acquisition
Analysis of Stereotactic PET Images and Target Definition
Data Analysis
Results
Abnormal Met and FDG Uptakes
Lesions in the Cortical Grey Matter
Lesions in the Sub-cortical Grey Matter
Specific Contribution of Met-PET and FDG-PET
Specificity and Sensitivity to Detect Tumor Tissue
Discussion
PET for the Guidance of Stereotactic Brain Biopsy
Choice of Radiotracer
Accuracy of Stereotactic PET Coregistration
Comparison Between Met and FDG
References

17. Hemorrhagic Brain Neoplasm: 99MTc-Methoxyisobutyl Isonitrile-Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography; Filippo F. Angileri, Fabio Minutoli, Domenico La Torre and Sergio Baldari

Introduction
Radiopharmaceutical and Technical Issues
99mTc-MIBI-SPECT in Brain Tumors Evaluation
99mTc-MIBI-SPECT in Hemorrhagic Brain Neoplasm
References

18. Brain Tumor Imaging Using p-[123I]IODO-L-Phenylalanine and SPECT; Dirk Hellwig

Introduction
Imaging Method
Preparation of 123I-IPA
Patient Preparation and Administration of 123I-IPA
SPECT Acquisition
Correlative Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Coregistration of SPECT and NMR Images
Qualitative Interpretation and Quantitative Image Analysis
Results of Brain Tumor Imaging Using 123I-IPA
Initial Evaluation of Suspected Brain Tumors
Evaluation of Suspected Recurrence or Progression
Quantitative Criteria for the Evaluation of Brain Lesions by IPA-SPECT
Comparison of 123I-IPA and 123I-IMT
Dosimetry of 123I-IPA
Discussion
Potential Advancements
Acknowledgement
References

19. Diagnosis and Staging of Brain Tumors: Magnetic Resonance Single Voxel Spectra; Margarida Julia-Sape, Carles Majos and Carles Arus

Introduction
Single Voxel Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
What Does Single Voxel MRS Tell us about a Brain Tumor
Information Provided by a Single Voxel MR Spectrum
Methods
How to Perform a Single Voxel Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study
When a Brain Tumor is Suspected
Acquisition Parameters for Single Voxel Magnetic Resonance
Spectroscopy
Reporting on a Single Voxel Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study
Quantifying a Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study: Processing a
Single Voxel Magnetic Resonance Spectrum
Quantifying an MRS Study: Ratio-Based Determinations
Quantifying an MRS Study: Classifiers and Decision-Support Systems
When There is an Indication for a SV MRS Exam
Discrimination Between Tumor and Pseudotumoral Lesion
Tumor Classification
Follow-up of Brain-Tumors after Treatment
References

20. Parallel Magnetic Resonance Imaging Acquisition and Reconstruction: Application to Functional and Spectroscopic Imaging in Human Brain; Fa-Hsuan Lin and Shang-Yueh Tsai

Introduction
Principles of Parallel MRI
Parallel Magnetic Resonance Imaging Acquisitions
Parallel Magnetic Resonance Imaging Reconstructions
Mathematical Formulation
Application: Sense Human Brain Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Application: Sense Proton Spectroscopic Imaging
Conclusion
References

21. Intra-Axial Brain Tumors: Diagnostic Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Elias R. Melhem and Riyadh N. Alokaili

Introduction
Classification and Overview of Central Nervous System Tumors
Intra-Axial Tumor Imaging Protocol
Diffusion Imaging
Diffusion Tensor Imaging
Perfusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Basics of Central Nervous System Tumor Image Interpretation
General Conventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Appearance of Intra-axial Tumors
Appearance of Specific Intra-axial Brain Tumors on Advanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Primary (non-lymphomatous) Neoplasms
Secondary Neoplasms (Metastases)
Lymphoma
Tumefactive Demyelinating Lesions
Brain Abscess
Encephalitis
Approach to an Unknown Intra-axial Brain Tumor
Limitations and Future Direction
References

22. Brain Tumors: Apparent Diffusion Coefficient at Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Fumiyuki Yamasaki, Kazuhiko Sugiyama and Kaoru Kurisu

Introduction
Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and T2 Shine-Through
Diffusion-Weighted Images Sequences
Cellularity and Apparent Diffusion Coefficient
Clinical Application of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient in Brain
Tumor Grade and Apparent Diffusion Coefficient
Differentiation of Brain Tumors and Apparent Diffusion Coefficient
Astrocytomas, Oligodendrogliomas, and Ependymomas
Dysembryoplastic Neuroepithelial Tumors
Medulloblastomas, Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors, and Ependymomas
Central Neurocytomas and Subependymomas
Hemanglioblastomas and Other Posterior Cranial Fossa Tumors
Glioblastomas, Metastatic Tumors, and Malignant Lymphomas
Histologic Subtyping of Meningiomas, and schawannomas
Pituitary and Parasellar Tumors and Other Tumors
Visualizing Tumor Infiltration
Distinguishing Tumor Recurrence from Radiation Necrosis
Monitoring Treatment Effects
Distinguishing Tumor Recurrences from Resection Injury
Distinguishing Brain Abscesses from Cystic or Necrotic Malignant Tumors
Limitations: Variations in Apparent Diffusion Coefficient
Measurements and Selection of Regions of Interest
Future Directions
References

23. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Brain Tumors Using Iron Oxide Nanoparticles; Matthew A. Hunt and Edward A. Neuwelt

Introduction
Biologic and Molecular Characteristics
Imaging Characteristics
Experimental Studies
Human Imaging
Intraoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Future Directions
References

24. Metastatic Solitary Malignant Brain Tumor: Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Nail Bulakbasi and Murat Kocaoglu

Introduction
Screening and Initial Evaluation
Imaging Protocol
Imaging Properties of Solitary Brain Metastasis
Differential Diagnosis of Solitary Brain Metastasis
Future Trends and Conclusion
References

25. Brain Tumor Resection: Intraoperative Ultrasound Images; Christof Renner

Introduction
General Principles
Principles of Intraoperative Ultrasound Examination
Efficacy of Intraoperative Ultrasound
References

26. Primary Central Nervous System Lymphomas: Salvage Treatment;Michele Reni, Elena Mazza, and Andres J. M. Ferreri

Introduction
Diagnostic Workup at Relapse
Prognostic Factors
Methodological Issues
Whole-Brain Radiotherapy
Chemotherapy
Single Agent Chemotherapy
Retreatment with Methotrexate
Combination Chemotherapy
Monoclonal Antibodies
High-Dose Chemotherapy and Autologous Stem-cell Rescue
Intrathecal Chemotherapy
Conclusions
References

27. Central Nervous System Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumors: Role of Insulin-Like Growth Factor I Receptor; Michael A. Grotzer, Tarek Shalaby, and Alexandre Arcaro

Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Receptor
Role in CNS Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor
Analytical Methods
Immunohistochemistry
Immunoprecipitation
Western Blotting
Quantitative RT-PCR
Cell Viability
Detection of Apoptosis
Evaluation of IGF-I/-II/IGF-IR IN CNS AT/RT
Down-Regulation of IGF-IR
Therapeutic Significance of IGF-IR IN CNS AT/RT
References

28. Central Nervous System Rosai-Dorfman Disease; Osama Raslan, Leena M. Ketonen, Gregory N. Fuller and Dawid Schellingerhout

Introduction, Epidemioligy and Etiology
Intracranial Rosai Dorfman Disease: Clinical and Imaging
Findings and Diffrential Diagnosis
Spinal Rosai Dorfman Disease: Clinical and Imaging Findings
Histopathological and Diffinate Diagnosis
Clinical Course and Treatment
References


Edited by: Hayat, M. A.
590 Pages, Illustrations: 68 illus., 34 in color., Hardcover, July 2010
$239.00 U.S.
ISBN: 978-90-481-8664-8  
email: info@advmedpub.net
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